Category: Mass Media

#MeToo: Personal Stories of Assault Flood Social Media

As I scrolled through my phone through my various social media applications (as part of my slow Monday morning routine) I noticed the phrase “Me Too” flooding my streams. At first I was puzzled by this reoccurring status, but did a quick google search and came to astonishing realization: all of these people have experienced some sort of harassment or assault. It took a second to fully comprehend how many of my friends and followers have had this traumatic experience. As I continued scrolling through my feeds, I discovered that this campaign was kick started by a tweet by actress Alyssa Milano. Soon after many public figures came out responding with a “Me Too” including Viola Davis, Debra Messing, Rosario Dawson, Lady Gaga and Sheryl Crow just to name a few. By Monday afternoon, Twitter announced that the “Me Too” had been used in half million tweets and Facebook released “Me Too” was referenced by 8.7 million users.

This campaign comes out shortly after the New York times published a tell-all article about the alleged sexual harassment incidents by movie mogul Harvey Weinstein. In the wrath of the article, Weinstein has been fired from his own company and the company will formally change their name. Let’s hope that that these events will ignite the conversation about harassment and assault and that social media will release these numbers to help change societal norms around harassment and assault!

Sources:

http://people.com/movies/me-too-alyssa-milano-heads-twitter-campaign-against-sexual-harassment-assault/

 

http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/harvey-weinstein-what-you-need-to-know-w508162

 

https://www.recode.net/2017/10/16/16482410/me-too-social-media-protest-facebook-twitter-instagram

 

Thank you to Dr. Marshall for the fascinating presentation!

Last week, we were excited to have Dr. Laura Marshall discuss her dissertation research with us. Her work looked at the different types of comments posted online under an article for Breitbart and for Huffington Post, both on the subject of healthcare reform. Identity seemed very important to establish in both comments sections with “othering” used as the most common social process, i.e. invalidating a differing opinion typically through name-calling and questioning of intelligence. Main distinctions between the two sets of comments included Breitbart comments focusing on personal responsibility and a distrust of government actions or programs, and Huffington Post comments emphasizing social justice and hopeful solutions.

What is the purpose of these comments sections and, ultimate goal, how can communication professionals utilize them? Dr. Marshall’s theory is that users of comments sections establish identity through “othering,” then seek or offer information within their group, and propose solutions.

Guest Speaker: Dr. Allison Lazard talks about eHealth Design

The UpstreamDownstream Health Communication blog is run by students enrolled in a seminar class within the Interdisciplinary Health Communication program at UNC Chapel Hill. A core aspect of this class is the opportunity provided studentes to hear about the work and the journey of leaders and leaders-to-be in the field. Dr. Allison Lazard, an Assistant Professor at the School of Media and Journalism at UNC, started off our semester of guest speakers with an engaging and informative presentation on the importance of communicable materials in interactive interventions.

Dr. Lazard sees opportunities in the world to use design manipulation to create a subjective experience for individuals with needs and wants, in order to influence better health outcomes. To prioritize the user experience, she asks specific questions about aesthetics, usability and content. She has found that tone matters, users respond well to interactive design features, and that the importance of images that match a health message cannot be understated. Her research findings also indicate that responsive websites (that automatically react to be readable for a phone screen vs a computer or tablet screen) are increasingly valuable, and that there is a clear preference for classical aesthetics when it comes to delivery of health information.

As more and more people turn to web or app-based sources of information, designing effective information sources is central to effective health communication. eHealth is a new but quickly expanding field, informed by the innovative work of researchers like Dr. Lazard. We loved hearing from her, and are excited for a semester of inspiring talks!

9/11, Hurricane Season, and disaster-related Secondary Traumatic Stress

Yesterday was the 16th anniversary of the 9/11 Terror Attack, and like many Americans I can easily recount where I was at when I saw the coverage of the attack. The event dominated news media for weeks after the events unfolded, and became enshrined as a defining moment of 21st century America.

I cannot even begin to fathom the first hand experiences of people who directly impacted from the attack, but for many, the day is a permanent memory of the way they felt, perceived, and witnessed everything unfold.

Secondary Traumatic Stress occurs when an individual hears the recounting of another’s traumatic life event. Often, the symptoms are similar to that of the more commonly known Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD. In recent years, there has been more research being done to see the effects of disasters that affect those beyond those immediately experiencing an event.

In the wake of the recent disasters of Hurricane Harvey and Irma, we have seen coverage of their destruction everywhere from major news sources to the social media that we consume for updates from loved ones. A recent New York Times piece noted that the Weather Channel, being the only network to provide 24/7 access to coverage of the recent Hurricanes, had seen its audience increase nearly tenfold. The coverage of these storms has been vast, because the scale of the destruction of these storms has been unprecedented.

Covering these events is vital, it is important that we do not sensor the news that we receive just because of the harmful effects that it may have on us. But, by being more aware, and staying informed, we can acknowledge the way that having information so freely available can help us to cope, and hopefully heal, together.

 

Sources –

New York Times Piece: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/09/business/media/weather-channel-hurricane-irma.html?_r=0

Secondary Traumatic Stress: http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/secondary-traumatic-stress

Are You Healthy?

To understand whether or not your healthy, you have to first understand what it means to be healthy. It seems straightforward, but in the modern age, this is a complex question.

We might at first be inclined to think that being healthy means that you don’t have any illness or injury. But is this always true? What if you have an illness that is managed by medication? What if a person has a disability but the disability doesn’t disrupt their daily life? What if you’ve been diagnosed with pre-hypertension but have no symptoms?

Joseph Dumit, Director of Science and Technology Studies and Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Davis, discusses various changes to our view of health and illness since the rise of the randomized control trial in his book Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define Our Health (Duke University Press, 2012). He argues “that being at risk for illness is often treated as if one had a disease requiring lifelong treatments, drugs for life” (6).

Dumit discusses a few prediseases in depth, looking at pre-hypertensive, pre-diabetes, and borderline high cholesterol. “Literally, a disease-sounding syndrome is produced by correlating risk factors and naming it in such a way that it becomes common sense to think about treating ‘it’ as a disease in and of itself” (165). Hence, health becomes a matter of risk where we are all bodies constantly at risk of disease. If you have pre-diabetes, are you healthy? How do we understand our health in a risk economy of health?

This intersects interestingly with Donald A. Barr’s claim, in his book Health Disparities in the United States: Social Class, Race, Ethnicity, & Health, that despite investing so much of our economy in health, US health indexes rank rather low; “[p]erhaps, our basic assumption–that more health care will lead, necessarily, to better health–is flawed.”

Social Media & Hurricane Harvey

As Hurricane Harvey continues to do damage in Texas, social media demonstrates its strong and rather novel role in times of crisis. The National Weather Service, the Coast Guard, and Houston Police have all taken to Twitter to disseminate emergency safety information. And those in need of help have been tweeting back—providing their locations and pleading for rescue. With emergency help lines overwhelmed and often ringing busy for hours, taking to Twitter or connecting through a Facebook group like “Hurricane Harvey Helping Hands” may feel like the strongest action available to self-advocate and ask for help from both official channels and private.

In comparing the communication during Hurricane Harvey to past large-scale storms such as Katrina, the utilization of social media to connect and pinpoint location stands out in my mind as a promising and potentially life-saving advancement.

From here in North Carolina, our hearts go out to those in Texas.

 

Sources:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/08/28/water-is-swallowing-us-up-in-houston-desperate-flood-victims-turn-to-social-media-for-survival/?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.4eaff8a1da88

http://abcnews.go.com/US/hurricane-harvey-officials-distress/story?id=49452948

Narrative Reconstruction: a Lesson we can learn from Taylor Swift

This past Sunday, Taylor Swift premiered the music video for her latest single, Look What You Made Me Do, at the MTV Video Music Awards. The video went viral upon release, and subsequently has been the subject of a number of internet think pieces breaking down the star’s critiques on different personas of herself in the public eye over the course of her career. In case you missed it, you can find it here.

 But beyond providing a tongue in cheek look into the perceptions of a widely successful pop artist, the idea of reconstructing narratives for self-affirmation can be key to those who have suffered previous traumatic experiences.

 A study recently published in Qualitative Social Work studied the effect of narrative construction, or having an organized and logical story of their previous traumatic experiences, along with a clear sense of self throughout and a sense of how that experience has shaped them. They found that compared to those who had not constructed a narrative, those with a higher level of narrative construction noted an increased acceptance of their experiences, and being more likely to perceive life experiences as positive and significant. Those with an elevated sense of narrative construction credited their success to strategies such as reflective writing, informal conversations with supportive friends and family, and seeking professional help such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

But often, the stressors of daily life are somewhere between trauma and celebrity feud. As summer is ending and the school year here again, it’s a great time to begin to regularly process emotions, especially with the seemingly constant stream of news and celebrity gossip. With September being Self-Awareness month, taking the time for some reflective journaling, or simply maintaining a strong support system of friends and family can set you up for success. If you feel like talking to a professional, the university has wonderful Counseling and Psychological Services, with walk in services regularly available. Beyond that, if you need additional help for figuring out to find a therapist, or if you’re curious about what therapy could look like, check out this article published by the New York Times – How to Find the Right Therapist.

 

For CAPS Walk-In Services:

Go to the 3rd floor of the Campus Health Services Building.

MON-THURS: 9 am – noon or 1 pm – 4 pm

FRI: 9:30 am – noon or 1 pm – 4 pm.

 

Sources-

Qualitative Social Work: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1473325016656046

New York Times Article: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/17/smarter-living/how-to-find-the-right-therapist.html?mcubz=1&_r=0

Transparency during Outbreaks-a Balancing Act?

Communicating about a potential public health concern can put a national voice in a tricky position. This was the situation the Indian government found itself in earlier this year when isolated cases of Zika broke out in the state of Gujarat.

Some argue that it is absolutely essential for the government to keep the public aware of even threats deemed low, as a step towards increased preparedness in the event of an outbreak (Scroll.In). The New York Times cites Dr. Swaminathan, the director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research, as justifying the lack of communication as rooted in a need to prevent undue panic. Similarly, the Wire interviewed Dr. Ravindran, the director of emergencies in the Ministry of Health and Welfare , who reports that as the WHO did not declare ZIKA as a continued PHEIC (Public Health Emergency of International Concern), the government was not obligated to report these cases, as noted in the International Health Regulations. The cases were reported after being further investigated.

Which brings us back to a question of responsibility: What guides risk communication?

A document published in March 2016 by the WHO provides some guidance. They define risk communication as “the real-time exchange of information, advice, and opinions between experts, community leaders, or officials and the people who are at risk”. It goes on to identify who the at-risk populations are, the best channels for communication, and guidelines on content. By and large, it stresses the point that risk communication has the goal of empowering, above and beyond informing.

Social media have had a significant positive impact in real-time health communication in recent years. For instance, SMS/Tweets were used to identify vaccination locations during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. On the other hand, such a large volume of information can be difficult to manage. An example of this chaos was witnessed in the Fall of 2014, when the United States saw an Ebola outbreak (Ratzan, 2014).

All to say…risk communication requires deliberation and thoughtful consideration. While the Zika cases in India continue to be a story that sparks a lot of push-back, rightfully so, it’s important to see the flip side of that coin.

 

 

 

 

Is Health Advertising Worth the Cost? You Be the Judge.

From a small printed flyer to a 30-second T.V. spot during the Super Bowl, there’s no question that advertising is expensive. And while there are many different forms of getting the word out, there are different reasons we advertise as well. It’s safe to say most advertising or marketing, particularly on a large scale, is done for competitive reasons—to boost sales and detract potential customers from going someplace else. But what about when the product being advertised isn’t actually for sale? What’s the goal of marketing something if you aren’t going to profit financially?

In the health communication field, organizations choose to advertise as a means of communicating something to the general public. This could be a health message to get tested for HIV or a celebrity testimonial to stop domestic violence. Either way, in health communication, the the “seller” or advertiser doesn’t stand to gain a profit on their effort in the financial sense, but rather, to promote healthy behaviors that in the long term, save lives. But these ads aren’t cheap. As health communicators, how do we know when the message we’re promoting is effective at producing change for the better?

That’s just what research economist Paul Shafer is trying to determine. A doctoral student in health policy and management, Shafer is working to determine the effectiveness of tobacco cessation advertisements from the Tips From Former Smokers campaign. The ads aired from March 4 to June 21, 2013. To determine effectiveness, Shafer and his colleagues looked at web traffic and determined the number of unique visitors the site had during the time the ads were aired.

The federally funded national tobacco education campaign resulted in the Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) campaign website having over 900,000 total visits and nearly 1.4 million page views. There were an additional 660,000 unique visitors, meaning users returned to the site after their initial visit.

In his paper, published online Feb. 17, in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, Shafer seeks to demonstrate the relationship between the amount of advertising and the resulting numbers in web traffic. He attempts to show that by increased advertising leads to increased traffic, for both new and returning visitors, thus, implying the advertisements are effective at least getting people’s attention.

Shafer explains the uniqueness of his study is that he and his researchers were able to record the variation of media dose over time and across markets, as opposed to comparing aggregated traffic before, during, and after the campaign.

In addition, he and his team were able to determine fluctuation between the two types of ads, both aimed at providing resources to smokers desiring to quit. The ads used different tagging methods, such as a URL or a telephone hotline number, with results showing that the URL ads were more effective at driving users to the website, but that the hotline ads were also effective at increasing web views.

While Shafer’s study makes it difficult to determine the number of individuals who quit smoking as a direct result of the ads, the study does imply that such campaigns not only serve as a call to action, but also are effective at linking people to resources they would otherwise likely not know about. Finally, the results of the study imply the potential researchers have at more accurately forecasting the impact such ads will have at increasing web usage and interest in online resources that promote healthy behaviors.

So, aside from the fact that health campaigns can be quite expensive to implement, and there are no guarantees of success, with careful formative research and a targeted approach, such campaigns are valuable for the potential they have at impacting populations on a large scale at changing behaviors for good.

How the Super Bowl Tackled Public Health Issues

If you were one of the 112 million people watching the Super Bowl this past weekend, you probably are familiar with the variety of commercials that aired during the big game. From Mountain Dew’s bizarre “puppymonkeybaby” ad to Heinz’s adorable ad featuring a stampede of wiener dogs, advertisers undoubtably provided a diverse lineup this year.

Although the purpose of many of these commercials was to promote products and create brand awareness, advertisers also used the big game as an opportunity to tackle a few public health issues, most notably domestic violence and drunk driving.

First, nonprofit NO MORE partnered with the NFL for the second year in a row to bring issues of domestic violence into the spotlight (just in time for Teen Domestic Violence Awareness Month) with their chilling ad. The ad featured a text conversation between two friends that addressed how bystanders can play a role in stopping abuse. While the ad received a lot of criticism for failing to address the number of NFL players who face domestic abuse accusations, just the fact that this type of ad aired for such a large audience is a positive.

Then, Budweiser attempts to stigmatize drinking and driving with it’s more light-hearted ad featuring Helen Mirren. In this commercial, 70-year-old British actress slams drunk drivers by calling them, ” short-sighted, utterly useless, oxygen wasting, human form[s] of pollution,” among other things.

All in all, having public service announcements like these air during the most-watched sporting event in the U.S. is a crucial step that will hopefully pave the way for many more to air in the years to follow. What other issues do you think the Super Bowl should tackle?